Supersonic Drag Curve
# Supersonic Drag Curve

" From the last equation we see that the higher the L/D, the lower the glide angle, and the greater the distance that a glider can travel across the ground for a given change in height. However supersonic aerodynamics are weird - its all about controlling those shockwaves coming off of the surfaces, and the aircraft's center of dynamic stability shifts forward once supersonic as well. org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine. At an altitude of 20,000 feet we will pass through Mach 1, the resultant supersonic shock waves will then serve to increase the airplane drag. Lissajous curve. The raindrop curve works when you cannot control the frontal area as a parameter. That's why the typical drag curve as seen for example in Bryan Litz's / Applied Ballistics books shows a curve that starts low (at the right which is the high velocity side), rises steadily as you go left with reducing velocity, more steeply through the transonic zone and peaks just above the speed of sound with an even faster rapid fall to the. It is used in the drag equation where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or drag. Supersonic Drag Due to Lift At supersonic speeds, all airfoil, regardless of shape, generate zero lift at zero angle of attack Practical supersonic airfoil shapes also generate minimum drag at zero lift and zero angle of attack The drag-due-to-lift parameter k increases smoothly to very high supersonic values. The things to consider in point design, the sharper the point the lower the bow wave drag. 2020 High supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of five irregular. 30 from what I've read. Now the mat does have a tendency to attract small bits of dust and fluff but this was easy to remove just by running the non-slip mat under running water. There could have been a lot more drag causing the max speed to be slower, but 195 m/s is well below where even transonic effects should show up. js takes a slightly different approach compared to most drag and drop libraries. Find Aerodynamic Drag related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Aerodynamic Drag information. Перевод слова drag, американское и британское произношение, транскрипция, словосочетания, однокоренные to drag a net — тянуть сеть to drag one's feet — а) тянуть (с каким-л. The supersonic NLF wing design is the fourth principle for reducing supersonic drag. A supersonic airstream passing through a normal shock wave. CFD Analysis Based Evaluation of Aerodynamic Characteristics for Supersonic Biplane with Finite Span Length Masahito YONEZAWA 1) , Shigeru OBAYASHI 1) 1) [in Japanese]. » Maximum Lift-Drag Ratio - Delta Wings , 51 5. The resulting fixed drag curve models for several standard projectile shapes or types are referred to as the For supersonic long range artillery, where base drag dominates, base bleed is employed. •!In essence, the fact that a wing produces lift means that it also produces drag. In aerodynamics, aerodynamic drag is described by a nondimensional aerodynamic drag coefficient C D, through which the aerodynamic drag D is defined as where ρ ∞ is the density of the undisturbed medium, v ∞ is the velocity of motion of the body relative to this medium, and 5 is the specific area of the body. Drag 2 Electric Parameter : 3. A study illustrating the poten-tial of drag devices is presented in Fig. blue pressure curve, red velocity curve The closed measuring section with two opposite windows is a central component of the supersonic wind tunnel. Detached shock These shocks are curved, and form a small distance in front of the body. Willys Supersonic Engine. Biconvex Airfoils. (b) Make a sketch to scale showing stream lines and shock lines. So most supersonic airfoils, whether fins or wings, are bi-convexal with a small angle of attack to generate lift for wings. Figure 12 : Lift/Drag ratios as a function of Mach number (27) (28) Typically L/D ratios for modern subsonic aircraft vary between 18 and 21. Bodies with reduced surface drag: 1988-11-22: Presz: 244/130: 4401269: Lobe mixer for gas turbine engine: 1983-08-30: Eiler: 239/265. Перевод слова drag, американское и британское произношение, транскрипция, словосочетания, однокоренные to drag a net — тянуть сеть to drag one's feet — а) тянуть (с каким-л. Supersonic wave drag is determined using a numerical application of Whitcomb's area rule. Under design conditions at a specific supersonic flow speed, the Busemann biplane airfoil eliminates all wave drag due to its. At this point the C L = 0. flow 1410. 629 , temperature = − 14. jpg 4,000 × 2,688; 769 KB Spherically blunted cone geometry. Several studies, including the Agile Combat Aircraft, envisioned the aircraft as a canard delta design, specialising in air superiority. 8 and Mach 1. Seeing supersonic: Nasa captures stunning images of shock waves created by jet fighters as they Nasa scientists have developed a new way of capturing sonic shock waves The technique may aid the development of quieter supersonic aircraft. The Turboramjet Engine 1. 0 for a perfect Sears-Haack body, =1. For a supersonic aircraft, the inlet must slow the flow down to subsonic speeds before the air reaches the compressor. 1 A Brief History of Ammunition 43 2. Transonic compressibility drag increases significantly as the speed of flight increases towards Mach 1. Mesoflaps: Controlling Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction. We zoomed around the curve at Hawker Beechcraft. There are ways to mitigate that increase -- fly higher to reduce air density, reduce drag by using specialized airfoils and reducing excrescence, take advantage of increasing engine efficiencies, etc. The supersonic through-flow fan engine airframe integrated vehicles have superior aerodynamic performance on the basis of maximum lift-to-drag ratio than the turbine bypass engine installation over the entire operating Mach number range from i. 5, regardless of Mach. Summary of drag reduction concepts. 2 for a supersonic fighter, bomber. The inlet lip is sharpened to minimize the performance losses from shock waves that occur during supersonic flight. The Viking model worked so well that the space agency kept using it for all of its. as well as many other supersonic aircraft. burning in supersonic streams. The measurement of the drag coefﬁcient of a dilute granular ﬂow around a cylinder is carried out over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. A curved aerodynamic surface influences the airflow even a long way from that surface, bending the Above the speed of sound. Drag is generated by nine conditions associated with the motion of air particles over the aircraft. 2 Embedded Question: Minimum take-off speed. The modified drop tanks has negligible destabilizing effect, 11% more fuel carrying capacity and lower drag penalty. " ScienceDaily. By curve fitting, we can mathematically construct the functional relationship between the observed data set and parameter values, etc. Supercritical airfoil section. 978 likes · 31 talking about this. 5 meter diameter Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute. Notice that at supersonic speeds, the G1 and G7 drag curves are very similar in shape. But there is one sin it can't correct for - getting too far behind the power curve. 8) in an attempt to reduce the forces on the model support. Figure 12 : Lift/Drag ratios as a function of Mach number (27) (28) Typically L/D ratios for modern subsonic aircraft vary between 18 and 21. – Curves depend upon aircraft (thrust and drag) – Maybe used to climb and/or accelerate – Function of altitude – Function of load factor • “Military pilots fly with P s diagrams in the cockpit”, Anderson. 408 Cheyenne Tactical is based on the. In supersonic flow regimes, wave drag is commonly separated into two components, supersonic lift-dependent wave drag and supersonic volume-dependent wave drag. Approaching supersonic speeds, the boundary layer interaction between the plane surface and the airflow begin exerting great forces on the airframe. Where the drag curve first starts to climb marks the critical Mach number. 2) The thrust curve of this particular motor may have had slight variations from the average for this motor type. Supersonic Drag Curve The predicted value for the SSME is 0. Supersonic aircraft typically have long, protruding noses to reduce drag at high speeds 50th Space Wing (5,963 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article 50th FBW would receive the new F-100D Super Sabre. That is, as the theoretical drag variation with Mach number becomes smaller, the equivalent body gives a better approximation of the supersonic-drag level. At takeoff the variable exhaust nozzle fixed inlet would incur large drag penalties at the lower supersonic flight " speeds. Aerodynamic drag is the force that opposes the motion of a car or an airplane. Supersonic-Subsonic shift can still cause many kind of troubles with full size rifles, but this is not related to pure drag curve itself. Otherwise, the drag force is much greater than the lift force, making the use of the airfoil impossible for supersonic application. Drag Curve database as measur ed by Bryan Litz is available (only applies to 4500 AB models or 5700 Kestrel The Kestrel 5700 is focused on high accuracy at the bullet's supersonic portion of the flight and optimized for minimal inputs required from the user. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Leeham Co: In the last Corner, we discussed the basics of supersonic flow, to prepare for a supersonic and transonic drag discussion. " From the last equation we see that the higher the L/D, the lower the glide angle, and the greater the distance that a glider can travel across the ground for a given change in height. The drag due to lift is also available from the theory. The bottom of the drag curve is the most efficient speed at which the airfoil can generate maximum As indicated in the depiction to the right, supersonic speed first develops at the area of maximum. SUPERSONIC INLETS. 1 A Brief History of Ammunition 43 2. In supersonic flight (Mach numbers greater than 1. Abstract: A system and method for configuring an aircraft for low sonic boom supersonic flight conditions includes redistributing lift of a wing by configuring the wing with one or more areas of far-field expansion ahead of areas of far-field compression. There are several types of drag: form, pressure, skin friction, parasite, induced, and wave. •!The source of induced drag is a downwash flow velocity created on the wing by the. For a supersonic wing the aspect ratio is of minor importance. Our supersonic airliner will make the world dramatically more accessible—-at today's business-class fares. If you were unlimited in design and wanted minimum drag then you make your minivan with all 7 seats behind each other in a needle shape. Nomenclature A = cross-sectional are ̅ = mean aerodynamic chord = skin friction coefficient 𝐿 𝛼 = lift coefficient curve slope 𝛼 = moment coefficient curve slope 𝑎 = wave drag. Comparing the jets "on" and "off" curves reveals an apparently substantial drag difference at Mach 1. 60% back from the leading edge in this case. Supersonic screw dislocations gliding at the shear wave speed. Supersonic Wing, Navier -Stokes Equations Abstract. Drag is generated by nine conditions associated with the motion of air particles over the aircraft. The drag results of the CFD analysis did not meet the goal of the initial design study. Supercritical airfoils employ a flattened upper surface, highly cambered (curved) aft section, and greater leading-edge radius as compared to traditional airfoil shapes. Drag Curve database as measur ed by Bryan Litz is available (only applies to 4500 AB models or 5700 Kestrel Elite models). A daredevil will skydive to Earth from 23 miles up on Oct. Reflexed Airfoil. The value of the drag-divergence Mach number is typically greater than 0. Tests conducted on a model ‘Busemann biplane’ catamaran in a towing basin qualitatively showed that the form of the wave drag coefficient curve followed the typical drag curve for a single unswept supersonic wing, but on this was superimposed that of the Busemann wave drag curve (giving a local minimum near the design Froude number). Drag = Skin Friction Drag + Viscous Pressure Drag + Inviscid (Vortex) Drag The first two effects are often combined into a single term called parasite drag. While technology will definitely advance, it is still not prescriptible to cruise at the most critical part of the transonic regime where the drag divergence is maximum. We show experimentally that an embarked terawatt femtosecond laser can significantly decrease this drag. Created by Sal Assume that you drag something along any path by applying some force and eventually come. Brake D may have some advantage over the no brake because of only a small impact to the high supersonic drag and significant reduction in drag at lower supersonic speeds. The Delta Wing helped the Concorde get lift at takeoff and limit drag while in. drag polars and lift curves, for different types of aircraft in different flight conditions 4. 2 Let y = fu(x) 0 •x •c; (1) y = f'(x) 0 •x •c; (2) represent the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil. The lift dependant component can be approximated as. Friction and drag. If we divide …. In supersonic flight, airfoils generate strong sonic booms and wave drags accompanied by shock waves. 2020; No Comments. Ever since, engineers have been pushing boundaries to try and get them to go faster. This showed that the typical standard deviation errors to be expected were about 3% in the supersonic region, 11% in the transonic region and about 6% in the subsonic region. So, for instance I might be interested in plotting AoA = 0 degrees, since that tends to offer the lowest drag, assuming you are using positive angle of incidence on your wings. Combining these two forms. CFD Analysis Based Evaluation of Aerodynamic Characteristics for Supersonic Biplane with Finite Span Length Masahito YONEZAWA 1) , Shigeru OBAYASHI 1) 1) [in Japanese]. The lift divided by drag is called the L/D ratio, pronounced "L over D ratio. A supersonic jet faster than the Concorde will get public design debut in Centennial Boom Technology unveils full size mock up of test plane that will ultimately seat 45. This shows up in the shapes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, where it is a critical matter to reduce drag as far as possible in either case. The aircraft that have been studied are: A320-200, B727-200, B737-800, C-130H and BAe 146-200. The important conclusions from this for wing selection are: Sweep does no longer help once the leading edge is supersonic. For normal cases, the effect of ε is small. At this point the C L = 0. This will be true also for bullets that are scaled from one caliber to another. Define center of pressure. The drag results of the CFD analysis did not meet the goal of the initial design study. Rim Speed Hot. A curve of Drag Coefficient against Mach number is generated. Supersonic Acrobatic Rocket-Powered Battle-Cars. From a qualitative understanding of the drag in Figures 1 and 2, an infinite vorticity in the boundary of a fluid domain is seen to correspond to inviscid flow. Primary menu. Introduction A wing of a supersonic transporter (SST) has been designed based on the sweep theory proposed in 1960s using the liner theory. Introduction. For practical purposes, separate determination of the induced drag has no particular significance. This means that the higher the speed. Form Drag of Delta Airfoils Whose Leading Edges are Inside the Mac'r«. To create a profile, steps 1 -3 are identical to the Kestrel 5700. Primary menu. The disadvantage. A supersonic jet faster than the Concorde will get public design debut in Centennial Boom Technology unveils full size mock up of test plane that will ultimately seat 45. There has never been a mail program this optimized for speed. Still, Coen said that by 2020, it's possible that small 50-person supersonic commercial aircraft could become the Concorde's successors. A reasonable cross-sectional area distribution determines supersonic aircraft wave drag reduction. Drag was composed of three main components- skin-friction drag, pressure drag, and induced drag (or drag due to lift). Wave drag is a phenomenon experienced during transonic/supersonic flight due to the presence of shock waves, which leads to a sharp increase in the drag coefficient. For the more complex flows obtained in the transonic and supersonic regions, CFD analysis or experimental data is required to correctly estimate C D. It is the excess power of jet fighters that can correct for a multitude of sins. 2020; No Comments. transonic flow! AE 401 Advanced Aerodynamics 241 8/11/2019 Supersonic airfoils • A nice thing about the supersonic solution is due to the hyperbolic nature of the problem. The first official land speed record was set in 1898 by a French chap called. 1 The airplane had a poor safety record. The SPIDI Supersonic Perforated Pro is the latest addition in SPIDI tracksuit collection, a step forward in terms of performance and comfort. Ie, (Total drag force) = (form drag) + (friction drag) 2. Low speed airfoil. The predicted value for the SSME is 0. 0, dominating other forms of drag at these speeds. Airfoil Plotting Software. A modified NACA 0012 for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) A range of Joukowski symmetrical airfoils. Under the condition of supersonic flow, the discharge voltage, current and power curves are shown in figure 5. 8) in an attempt to reduce the forces on the model support. com! ! Apasă acum pentru a juca Supersonic Speeders. Supersonic jets require almost military-levels of engineering and complex aerodynamics that minimize drag at high speed but generate enough lift to stay aloft at low speeds. It is the excess power of jet fighters that can correct for a multitude of sins. Showing that the line integral along closed curves of conservative vector fields is zero. The flat-top aircraft configuration is, then, capable of developing high lift-drag ratios at high supersonic speeds. Several drag curve models optimized for several standard projectile shapes are however available. Ultra HD Wallpapers 4k, 5k and 8k Backgrounds for desktop and mobile. 27) is the 2-D wave equation and has solutions of hyperbolic type. There are two different types of boundary layer flow: laminar and turbulent. The aircraft that have been studied are: A320-200, B727-200, B737-800, C-130H and BAe 146-200. Angle of attack, Expansion Waves & Oblique shock of supersonic delta wing The following two tabs change content below. •!In essence, the fact that a wing produces lift means that it also produces drag. shift+click-and-drag box selection is enabled. From a qualitative understanding of the drag in Figures 1 and 2, an infinite vorticity in the boundary of a fluid domain is seen to correspond to inviscid flow. At that point the drag rapidly drops. One of the initial Concorde design decisions was the selection of aluminium alloy as the basic structural material, a decision closely linked to the choice of Mach 2 as the design cruise speed. Created at protrusion intersections. In supersonic flight, the zero lift drag of an airfoil of some finite thickness will include a "wave drag". elasticity and plasticity, hook’s law and young’s modulus of elasticity. Several drag curve models optimized for several standard projectile shapes are however available. 5, regardless of Mach. The method demonstrates that the free-flight trajectory can be characterized in terms of five parameters; the muzzle velocity, muzzle retardation, a power-law exponent that describes the drag variation in supersonic flight, the transition Mach number where the flight transitions from supersonic to subsonic flight and the retardation at the transition velocity. Place items into the Horadric Cube by picking them up, dragging them over the Horadric Cube, and You can also pick the Horadric Cube, drag it over a large item you want to pick up, and left click on. Still, Coen said that by 2020, it's possible that small 50-person supersonic commercial aircraft could become the Concorde's successors. Method 1: From NASA TR R-100 a curve of three-dimensional Base-Pressure Coefficients (Cp_base) verses Mach number has been digitized to allow interpolation between values of Cp_base and Mach number to determine base drag coefficient (CDB) for subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow. The tangent to the drag curve, Drag v EAS, gives best range speed for the jet. Polar details page showing table of lift & drag coefficients and original polar file. Rise in Transsonic drag is gradual and peak drag in supersonic flight is reduced—Lift is spread over the broader chord--Senstivity of Drag to Mach Number is redued greatly--Satisfactory cross sectional area can be achieved very easily Change in lift component C L and lift curve slope C Lα with the value of Mach Number M is gradual. 2) was used in the next seriw of teatsat. Values for these drag constants for various categories of aircraft are shown in the following. The concept of biplane airfoil was first introduced by Adolf Busemann in 1935. Billboard is part of MRC Media and Info, a division of MRC. [Ctrl] + [Right Click Drag] Draw the shape around what you want to select. We see then that 6 per cent gain in (L/D),,, is of the order of the increase to be anticipated from sonic-edged wings by the use of camber or interference effects. Nielsen† University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-3975 We present an initial parametric investigation of fan ﬂow deﬂectors for suppressing noise from supersonic turbofan engines. com! ! Apasă acum pentru a juca Supersonic Speeders. ), as well as video sources and stuff. Drag Racing Classes. 1 Analysis of the Real Wave Drag Curves The calculation has been based on experimental data from some aircraft. The SPIDI Supersonic Perforated Pro is the latest addition in SPIDI tracksuit collection, a step forward in terms of performance and comfort. The flat-top aircraft configuration is, then, capable of developing high lift-drag ratios at high supersonic speeds. The flight envelope. Jump to Navigation Thin airfoil theory example. Curve fitting is the process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit (Closest Proximity) to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints. Every airplane has a power curve, and every power curve has a back side. In supersonic flow regimes, wave drag is commonly separated into two components, supersonic lift-dependent wave drag and supersonic volume-dependent wave drag. Hiragana Drag-n-Drop. 0), wave drag is the result of shockwaves present on the body, typically oblique shockwaves formed at the leading and trailing edges of the body. OpenVSP allows geometry changes to be made quickly, enabling rapid reanalysis by the wave drag tool for expeditious comparison of results across the design. 1 Aerodynamic performance plots; 2. angle angle of attack approximation assumed axis becomes body boundary layer calculated Chapter characteristic line compression cone conical considerations considered constant coordinates corresponding cross curve decreases defined density depends determined deviation diagram diffusor direction disturbances drag effusor entropy equal equation. The concept of biplane airfoil was first introduced by Adolf Busemann in 1935. 14, reference area = S) equivalent average skin-friction coefficient for turbulent flow lift coefficient, lift-curve slope, , deg –1 or rad –1 value of at corresponding for given polar section lift coefficient drag force along flightpath equivalent diameter 18. -- but I think it's safe to say that a supersonic aircraft will always require gobs more fuel than its subsonic cousins. For low subsonic speeds, one curve represents the sphere drag coefficient over a large range of Reynolds numbers; this curve is available in almost all fluid mechanics textbooks (see Olson 1980). Calculate wing lift coefficient (CL) and induced drag coefficient (CDi) for a geometric AOA, α = 4o. Also, an other suggestion: allow plotting an arbitrary curve, the same way you plot the excess thrust = 0 curve. Supersonic speed: A speed greater than that of sound. One point to take away form this curve is that, until the optimal velocity, it actually takes more thrust to maintain a lower speed, and it is not until you pass the optimal speed that you actually need more thrust to go faster. At that point the drag rapidly drops. The predicted value for the SSME is 0. It is the excess power of jet fighters that can correct for a multitude of sins. 2020; No Comments. The interaction between the solar wind and planetary bodies in our solar system has been investigated since well before the space age. The thin profile makes them excellent at producing little drag, however strong vorticies are difficult to produce at slow speeds as viscous forces dominate. Boom Supersonic is building a faster future. The Xfoil lift and drag predictions are considered valid just beyond maximum lift (Cl max). The final design involves a hybrid of a delta wing and a trapezoidal wing similar to that found on the F-102 Delta Dagger(2). The transonic drag rise is characterized using a polynomial curve fit between the subsonic and supersonic methods. A supersonic airstream passing through a normal shock wave. Created at protrusion intersections. The supersonic NLF wing design is the fourth principle for reducing supersonic drag. The bottom of the drag curve is the most efficient speed at which the airfoil can generate maximum As indicated in the depiction to the right, supersonic speed first develops at the area of maximum. Now I'm wondering how far he can shoot a bulleted object from his gun. If, however, near the tip, drag divergence due to locally supersonic areas occurs, the effect of e is considerable. Wave drag is caused by the formation of shock waves around the aircraft in transoni or supersonic flight. Supersonic Flow 377 3. The design optimization of a wing for supersonic transport by means of Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is presented. blue pressure curve, red velocity curve The closed measuring section with two opposite windows is a central component of the supersonic wind tunnel. Normal-force-curve-slope. In supersonic flight, airfoils generate strong sonic booms and wave drags accompanied by shock waves. 12 Shock tube study of particles' motion behind a planar shock wave. ROC and precision-recall curves are a staple for the interpretation of binary classifiers. Primary menu. [Ctrl] + [Right Click Drag] Draw the shape around what you want to select. AeroDRAG & Flight Simulation also performs flight simulations of rockets in vertical flight. It is more about radical and quick change on bullet center of air pressure location. In supersonic flight (Mach numbers greater than 1. 3 Calculation of the Wave Drag Curve 2. Federal Aviation Administration. Define center of pressure. Introduction. Drag Forces. Standard Features; fully integrated hybrid supersonic, non-afterburning engines, hybrid aerodynamic double delta supersonic laminar flow wing design, pressurized cabin to 84,000 ft, custom-luxury cabin and pilot deck, 6000 nautical miles IFR capable range, Jet-A, JP-4 and JP-7 fuel capable, electromagnetic drag reduction technology affording. The loudspeaker with a 1. Created at protrusion intersections. Enjoy! See below for Twitter, Patreon, Discord (etc. But there is one sin it can't correct for - getting too far behind the power curve. Supersonic wind tunnel with Schlieren optics x Description • pressure curves and pressure losses at subsonic and superson-ic flow • interchangeable walls in the measuring section for velocities up to Mach 1,8 • schlieren optics for visualisation of Mach lines and shock waves on drag bodies Subsonic and supersonic flows behave differently. This change had a significant effect in reducing supersonic drag and provided a bonus in increased fuel capacity. The drag reduction characteristics were investigated by changing the frequency of the. Showing that the line integral along closed curves of conservative vector fields is zero. If in trouble of bridging while drag soldering: Shape BCM/CM having the hollow with its surface is recommended. 2 Shock and Expansion Waves 381 The drag coefficient is plotted for lift coefficients in the linear lift curve range, as described in the. Drag'n'Drop is a great interface solution. 2 Theory of lift –The Circulation theory Circulation is a characteristic of a flow field which gives a measure of the average rate of rotation of fluid particles that are situated in an area that is bounded by a closed curve. The drag force was observed to follow a gradual curve with minimum values at 0 and 180° balance pitch angle, as expected since the fragment presented area is generally least in this orientation. G2 – bullets in the G2 range are Aberdeen J projectiles. jpg 1,498 × 906; 146 KB Slats and flaps. PREFACE This report is the thesis for the degree of master of science at the chair of Aerodynamics, faculty Aerospace Engineering, at Delft University of Technology. Comparing the jets "on" and "off" curves reveals an apparently substantial drag difference at Mach 1. Skin friction drag and form drag are contained within the two extremes of Figures 1 and 2. 1, 2 By 1951 experi ments on drag reduction of supersonic projectiles by burning in the projectile's wake had been con ducted by APL,3 but this was still essentially a subsonic heat release phenomenon. Profile Drag is the drag incurred from frictional resistance of the blades passing through the air. The wing, instead of coming to a point, curves and becomes parallel to the fuselage. F x = 0 and F y = - ρ U Γ. Supersonic aircraft must have considerably more power than subsonic aircraft require to overcome this wave drag, and although cruising performance above transonic speed is more efficient, it is still less efficient than flying subsonically. the case of zero drag, i. In particular, Baumgartner's suit made the total mass greater, and his coefficient of drag smaller. " ScienceDaily. When a flying object becomes supersonic, a concomitant increase in drag leads to a considerable rise in fuel consumption. Wave Drag - Due to the presence of shock waves occurring on the blade tips of aircraft and projectiles. One of the initial Concorde design decisions was the selection of aluminium alloy as the basic structural material, a decision closely linked to the choice of Mach 2 as the design cruise speed. 1 Isentropic Flow Relations 378 3. The modified drop tanks has negligible destabilizing effect, 11% more fuel carrying capacity and lower drag penalty. The Mailbird team sweats out every millisecond, and mercilessly cuts out every unnecessary step. In fact, the Concorde L/D ratio reduces from about 12 at Mach 0. Summary of drag reduction concepts. distance graph at supersonic Mach numbers for the same 6. Wing shape influences the lift curve slope as illustrated in the figure below by the coefficient of lift CL. Combining these two forms. For slender bodies the supersonic $\epsilon$ is 0. 8 was just a similar extension of the drag curve. There were 2 major factors behind the SR-71's ability to achieve speeds of more than MACH 3. It all came to an end when I turned off north toward my house. parachute flow-field to determine the cause, functional dependence, and scaling of the supersonic area oscillation phenomenon. The very bottom of this bowl shaped line is where the aircraft is the most efficient - you get. The mapping gets less accurate as the bullet shape changes even slightly. For example. Use of ballistics tables or ballistics software based on the Siacci/Mayevski G1 drag model, introduced in 1881, are the most common method used to work with external ballistics. The wing, instead of coming to a point, curves and becomes parallel to the fuselage. 10) the available propeller power must increase by (1. The drag curve for small spheres is below the critical Reynolds number for Mach numbers plotted, so the number from its normal value of 470,000 to values above 1,000,000 for supersonic flow regimes. precision_recall_curve(y_true, probas_pred, *, pos_label=None, sample_weight=None)[source] ¶. If then (13. 7 l rear chamber is mounted in a standard IEC baffle. 1 The airplane had a poor safety record. It all came to an end when I turned off north toward my house. BASE DRAG: The specific contribution to the pressure drag attributed to a separated boundary layer acting on an aft facing surface. Reflexed Airfoil. Drag'n'Drop is a great interface solution. This leads to blunter things having (relatively) more drag supersonic than they did. 1 Aerodynamic performance plots; 2. 9, so it's reasonable that there are large differences in performance in craft over that time. Jun 1, 2016 - Before entering to the main topic of stress-strain curve we have to know about stress and strain. 4-81, curve 3). greater curvature than the supersonic design. at certain points in the trajectory where drag curves do not match up. It might even be accurate to say the engines have been 'nerfed' - there were lots of features of the early game that were wildly overpowered, and those jets. In this study, the wing design problem for different planforms for supersonic transport (SST) under supersonic and transonic cruise conditions is discussed to obtain knowledge of the supersonic. For high subsonic and supersonic flows, the flow Mach number appears as a parameter (Bailey & Hiatt 1972; Bailey & Starr 1976; Henderson 1976). On the basis of an analysis of experimental data, obtained by the authors or taken from the literature, on the drag of a slender cone with half-angle θ=2. Slope intercept form Intercept form Normal form Let us learn all the straight lines formulas along with the general equation of a line and different forms to find the equation of a straight line in detail here. The loudspeaker with a 1. How large it is and how it may be reduced are questions of obvious importance to designers of moving vehicles of all sorts and equally to designers of cooling towers and other structures who want to be. Hence, there is still no drag for a rotating cylinder (inviscid assumption). precision_recall_curve(y_true, probas_pred, *, pos_label=None, sample_weight=None)[source] ¶. At a geometric AOA, α = 3. Induced drag •!Three-dimensional wings feature one very clear and simple to quantify source of drag: induced drag. Supersonic screw dislocations gliding at the shear wave speed. supersonic design and analysis codes (refs. The program is operated by entering the initial velocity, initial angle, and height above the surface of the projectile; selecting the rounding option desired, and then pressing the Calculate button. Create single cycle or multiframe wavetables and export directly into Serum. John Stack nicely summarized the situation in 1938:. Summary of drag reduction concepts. The following form of Green’s theorem will be used: whore T P, u, v iv v Now set volume bounded by ZO+ZI+Z. See full list on gtae6343. that the value of the component of thrust opposing drag is one-half the value of the drag component of the normal force for all leading-edge sweep angles. Detached shock These shocks are curved, and form a small distance in front of the body. Supercritical airfoil section. A supersonic laminar flow aircraft wing having an airfoil characterized in that the lower curve has a forward portion with its concavity facing a forward-lower direction and converging in the leading edge. In my opinion the issue is clearly the linear drag constant. Created at protrusion intersections. For supersonic aircraft the simple parabolic drag approximation is not accurate. Hiragana Drag-n-Drop. At transonic and supersonic speeds there is a substantial increase in the total drag of the airplane due to fundamental changes in the pressure distribution. For curves with sharp turns or complex shapes, the Suction Force will need to be balanced with the other forces to keep the particles near the curve and under the influence of the Curve Forces. Ever since, engineers have been pushing boundaries to try and get them to go faster. In this example the maximum value is at 6 o Angle of Attack and has a value of 13. 5 and the CD =. For example. - Energy-volume curves - Elastic constants - Vacancy formation energy - Interstitial formation energy (Both octahedral and tetrahedral) - Surface formation energy for (111). Most of the jet fighter should experience both sub and supersonic cruise status, and cruise performance of both regimes should be well considered. Skin friction drag and form drag are contained within the two extremes of Figures 1 and 2. Parasitic drag becomes dominant at higher air speeds. drag viscous forces due to shear stresses and thus may under represent the total drag force on the wing. It is also suitable for correcting bridging. Previous; Archives; Next; Menu; By nuxi; 28. More on the importance of this ratio later. Visit the post for more. You will have to fiddle with the curvature until the curve looks like the experimental data, but theoretically this number will be around 2. New Supersonic CronosCrl. 4-81) is obtained. Latest US news, world news, sports, business, opinion, analysis and reviews from the Guardian, the world's leading liberal voice. 2 Minimum take-off speed. If a brake is a necessity Brake D would certainly be the one to use with this setup. 81 m/s/s); atmospheric drag is neglected. A curve of Drag Coefficient against Mach number is generated. How to use inherent in a sentence. The resulting fixed drag curve models for several standard projectile shapes or types are referred to as the For supersonic long range artillery, where base drag dominates, base bleed is employed. A supersonic airstream passing through a normal shock wave. Polar details page showing table of lift & drag coefficients and original polar file. Due to it achieved distances for supersonic speeds can be occurred considerable less as. supersonic flights, the leading edge sustains extreme temperatures, which is possible because of the high conduction of heat of the material. The way I got to this was just by analzing the curves I have official values for, increasing the linear drag and fitting a regression curve. But this is usually small unless it is a normal shock - I. The flat-top aircraft configuration is, then, capable of developing high lift-drag ratios at high supersonic speeds. 1, 2 By 1951 experi ments on drag reduction of supersonic projectiles by burning in the projectile's wake had been con ducted by APL,3 but this was still essentially a subsonic heat release phenomenon. We see then that 6 per cent gain in (L/D),,, is of the order of the increase to be anticipated from sonic-edged wings by the use of camber or interference effects. It is more about radical and quick change on bullet center of air pressure location. The boundary layer separation will immediately starts at mid of aerofoil. transonic flow! AE 401 Advanced Aerodynamics 241 8/11/2019 Supersonic airfoils • A nice thing about the supersonic solution is due to the hyperbolic nature of the problem. Realistic exhaust geometry and ﬂow conditions. The drag due to lift is also available from the theory. But the Concorde has had some supersonic company. 5–20° an average correlation curve is proposed for the range of flow regimes extending from continuum to free molecular flow. hrust—Drag Curve Thrust—Drag Curve o Zero—Lift Thrust vs Thrust vs Drag Coef. Added NACA 0012H airfoil. Transonic compressibility drag increases significantly as the speed of flight increases towards Mach 1. Supersonic Speeds. Federal Aviation Administration. Still, Coen said that by 2020, it's possible that small 50-person supersonic commercial aircraft could become the Concorde's successors. The image below is interactive, you can drag the three red dots , zoom and move. Form Drag of Delta Airfoils Whose Leading Edges are Inside the Mac'r«. An alternative and usually almost equivalent metric is the Average Precision (AP), returned as info. These were basically E models that had been slightly modified, and marked 'F-15I' - with the 'I' standing for Israel. It is used in the drag equation where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or drag. The Dyson Airwrap™ styler harnesses an aerodynamic phenomenon called the Coanda effect. It might even be accurate to say the engines have been 'nerfed' - there were lots of features of the early game that were wildly overpowered, and those jets. •!In essence, the fact that a wing produces lift means that it also produces drag. The plug was to be inserted just behind the canopy where the area curve had the highest discontinuity (see Area curve in Figure 3: Assessment of aft body optimization for supersonic drag reduction. The following form of Green’s theorem will be used: whore T P, u, v iv v Now set volume bounded by ZO+ZI+Z. 2020; No Comments. jpg 4,000 × 2,688; 769 KB Spherically blunted cone geometry. 0 for a perfect Sears-Haack body, =1. Form Drag of Delta Airfoils Whose Leading Edges are Inside the Mac'r«. " From the last equation we see that the higher the L/D, the lower the glide angle, and the greater the distance that a glider can travel across the ground for a given change in height. 3 Assumptions in Breguet range analysis; Assess. The lift divided by drag is called the L/D ratio, pronounced "L over D ratio. The lift-curve slope of the blade section in incompressible flow is 0. But it was the beautiful wing that distinguished the Concorde for its greatest fans. The airplane, to get lift, must leave a trail of descending air. The closed form solution for the minimum wave drag of a body of revolution with a fixed length was found by Sears and Haack, and is known as the Sears-Haack Distribution. Drag is generated by nine conditions associated with the motion of air particles over the aircraft. Federal Aviation Administration. The shape of the projectile used to create the G1 drag curve had a flat base and an ogive profile similar to a benchrest projectile. To reduce them, Busemann’s biplane concept is adopted and developed. Nevertheless, strong and multiple secondary shocks are formed. Summary of drag reduction concepts. The supersonic NLF wing design is the fourth principle for reducing supersonic drag. jpg 1,498 × 906; 146 KB Slats and flaps. Intakes cause the same amount of drag whether open or closed. A moderate increase in the range could be obtained by aerodynamic tweaks to the current design. 8) in an attempt to reduce the forces on the model support. Select either G1 or G7 Ballistic Coefficient or use one of the custom drag curves as measured by Bryan Litz for the most accurate solutions at extreme long range. Remarkably, the arc discharge transforms from a continuous mode in stationary air to a pulsed-repetitive mode in the flow. The curve labeled a0 is that given on the previous figure and shows the maximum effect of radially symmetric modifica-tions. It is used for near-supersonic flight and produces a higher lift-to-drag ratio at near supersonic flight than traditional airfoils. 2 Drag The incremental drag force due to the inviscid flow acting on the arbitrary chordwise. "Supersonic spray yields new nanomaterial for bendable, wearable electronics. NACA TN 1449, October 1947. Growing super games. , ideal flow, corresponds to infinite vorticity in the fluid boundary. The flat-top aircraft configuration is, then, capable of developing high lift-drag ratios at high supersonic speeds. In fact, the Concorde L/D ratio reduces from about 12 at Mach 0. ” Delta because it was triangular, like the Greek Delta; ogival to reference its curve. 8, achieving supersonic speeds during his freefall. ROC and precision-recall curves are a staple for the interpretation of binary classifiers. elasticity and plasticity, hook’s law and young’s modulus of elasticity. As the shockwave becomes stronger, more airflow separation occurs, known as wave drag. 12 EXAMPLE: SUPERSONIC WAVE DRAG F-104 Starfighter. The measurement of the drag coefﬁcient of a dilute granular ﬂow around a cylinder is carried out over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. " The regions where the curves for 0 = 12. As you can clearly see from the formula, the drag force (F D) of water is directly proportional to the speed of the bullet (v). Rim Speed Hot. If we divide …. Assume the airfoil lift-curve slope, ao = 2π. Introduction A wing of a supersonic transporter (SST) has been designed based on the sweep theory proposed in 1960s using the liner theory. A curved aerodynamic surface influences the airflow even a long way from that surface, bending the Above the speed of sound. What is stress ? If a applied force causes change in the dimension of the material then the material is in the state of stress. hrust—Drag Curve Thrust—Drag Curve o Zero—Lift Thrust vs Thrust vs Drag Coef. Learn more about the results of the aerodynamic performance testing of the new SuperSix EVO. The SPIDI Supersonic Perforated Pro is the latest addition in SPIDI tracksuit collection, a step forward in terms of performance and comfort. Explain how lift and drag produced in supersonic profiles. That was a few years ago so with the reduction in areo from the rule changes and the development of the cars it probably has gone down. Also many other exchanges announced CRV listing simultaneously. 5m microphone distance. " Graph A of Figure 4-9 shows a curve based on thrust versus drag, which. 6 10× 6 b2 S-----A. Full-scale pressure measurements on a Sparkman and Stephens. Generally, the drag coefficient peaks at Mach 1. Drag = Skin Friction Drag + Viscous Pressure Drag + Inviscid (Vortex) Drag The first two effects are often combined into a single term called parasite drag. 9), we see that for 1. Simulated drag curve for compound helicopter. 30 from what I've read. Here we find much what we might 3. Furthermore, a parachute may suffer from a rapid fall-off of drag performance at supersonic speeds babish1966drag ; sengupta2011fluid , despite performing well in subsonic air-streams. Supersonic aircraft typically have long, protruding noses to reduce drag at high speeds 50th Space Wing (5,963 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article 50th FBW would receive the new F-100D Super Sabre. An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. From that point, the wing. 2) was used in the next seriw of teatsat. It is the final form of Dreepy, who evolves into Drakloak at level 50. The lift divided by drag is called the L/D ratio, pronounced "L over D ratio. 0 0 Rate of Climb Altitude Time to Altitude,. Drag is what pulls the Aircraft backwards. An inlet for a supersonic aircraft, on the other hand, has a relatively sharp lip. This website was co-developed by Andrea Shea (ashea@csus. 0, dominating other forms of drag at these speeds. Eight Security Protection : Overtime protection - Over temperature protection - Output over-current protection - Overcharge protection - Low battery protection. transonic flow! AE 401 Advanced Aerodynamics 241 8/11/2019 Supersonic airfoils • A nice thing about the supersonic solution is due to the hyperbolic nature of the problem. Slope intercept form Intercept form Normal form Let us learn all the straight lines formulas along with the general equation of a line and different forms to find the equation of a straight line in detail here. In particular, Baumgartner's suit made the total mass greater, and his coefficient of drag smaller. Optimized aerodynamics for operational efficiency. Or you are averaging between two points (or the entire flight path) and using a coefficient to say "well my bullet performs at XX% of the reference model". This phenomena, referred to as “area oscillations”, leads to large drag oscillations coincident with shape and lateral instability. At takeoff the variable exhaust nozzle fixed inlet would incur large drag penalties at the lower supersonic flight " speeds. Seaplanes and boats have also been made with unorthodox use specifically of the XM-G50 Radial Air Intake. However, it should be noted that airplanes with supersonic capabilities require more careful consideration of the dynamic effects as otherwise they may lead to erroneous information. It is more about radical and quick change on bullet center of air. Slow Drag Curve качай бесплатно, как и Connor Leary - Slow Drag Curve, Slow Curve - Sad Love, Slow Curve - King Prince, Slow Curve - Makers of Fire, Slow Curve - Holding On. The sight window on the operator side can be rotated and fitted with an angular scale, so that the drag body can. drag polars and lift curves, for different types of aircraft in different flight conditions 4. number (M NCRIT) – The location of the maximum t/c. The combined overall drag curve therefore shows a minimum at some airspeed - an aircraft flying at In supersonic flow regimes, wave drag is commonly separated into two components, supersonic. 1 Isentropic Flow Relations 378 3. For a supersonic aircraft, the inlet must slow the flow down to subsonic speeds before the air reaches the compressor. » Maximum Lift-Drag Ratio - Delta Wings , 51 5. At that point the drag rapidly drops. It accounts for most of the drag of a transport aircraft in cruise. Large range of concepts requiring flexible, high-fidelity. If then (13. Magnetic Adventure and Physics for Kids are my favorite Physics simulation software in this list. Supersonic Flow 377 3. 1 per degree, and the lift/drag ratio may, as an approximation, be taken to be constant at 50. Values for these drag constants for various categories of aircraft are shown in the following. Find Aerodynamic Drag related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Aerodynamic Drag information. 95 subsonic cruise during the first lower altitude cruise-climb. Power increase with speed might exceed airframe drag increase. The resulting fixed drag curve models for several standard projectile shapes or types are referred to as the For supersonic long range artillery, where base drag dominates, base bleed is employed. From a qualitative understanding of the drag in Figures 1 and 2, an infinite vorticity in the boundary of a fluid domain is seen to correspond to inviscid flow. These lift-drag ratios are, furthermore, especially susceptible to improvement by methods which reduce friction drag. The transonic drag rise is characterized using a polynomial curve fit between the subsonic and supersonic methods. Nx also includes the Nx Ambisonics component, which lets you mon. Lift-Drag Eatio of Delta and Rectangular Wings 51 4. But, as far as the drag force is concerned, you only need to know the velocity. Under the condition of supersonic flow, the discharge voltage, current and power curves are shown in figure 5. Supersonic Drag Curve The predicted value for the SSME is 0. Supersonic Acrobatic Rocket-Powered Battle-Cars. The ut is the velocity that is large enough to lift a single particle and carry it out of the fluidized bed. Aerodynamics Principles for Air Transport Pilots Davies. There are three equations for the drag coefficient corresponding to the three flow regimes: laminar, where Re < 1 , transition from laminar to turbulent, where 1 < Re < 500 and. Hydraulic type drag damper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Remarkably, the arc discharge transforms from a continuous mode in stationary air to a pulsed-repetitive mode in the flow. Past supersonic aircraft had only an L/D ratio of 7 to 8. Under design conditions at a specific supersonic flow speed, the Busemann biplane airfoil eliminates all wave drag due to its. BASE DRAG: The specific contribution to the pressure drag attributed to a separated boundary layer acting on an aft facing surface. Supersonic Racing, Warsaw, Poland. Howeer,v at the supersonic cruise point (low lift), a signi cant drag penalty due to wing camber usually occurs (ref. Supersonic Flow 377 3. Перевод слова drag, американское и британское произношение, транскрипция, словосочетания, однокоренные to drag a net — тянуть сеть to drag one's feet — а) тянуть (с каким-л. Into the great, wide open. This shows up in the shapes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, where it is a critical matter to reduce drag as far as possible in either case. Linear supersonic theory predicts that the curve of wave drag versus Mach number has a minimum point at a certain value of M ∞ > 1. F-104 fighter F-5 fighter F-16 fighter B-1B bomber Area-Ruled Aircrafts. The third nozzle loss mechanism is due to finite-rate chemical kinetics. Drag (physics). [Ctrl] + [Right Click Drag] Draw the shape around what you want to select. Angle of Attack, Lift coefficient, Drag coefficient, polar curve, stall; Aerofoil contamination including ice, snow. Tests conducted on a model ‘Busemann biplane’ catamaran in a towing basin qualitatively showed that the form of the wave drag coefficient curve followed the typical drag curve for a single unswept supersonic wing, but on this was superimposed that of the Busemann wave drag curve (giving a local minimum near the design Froude number). It suggests that the wing which has larger sweep-back angle can reduce wave drag intransonic and supersonic cruise. The drag due to lift is also available from the theory. 2 Theory of lift –The Circulation theory Circulation is a characteristic of a flow field which gives a measure of the average rate of rotation of fluid particles that are situated in an area that is bounded by a closed curve. Nielsen† University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-3975 We present an initial parametric investigation of fan ﬂow deﬂectors for suppressing noise from supersonic turbofan engines. •!The source of induced drag is a downwash flow velocity created on the wing by the. This leads to blunter things having (relatively) more drag supersonic than they did. •!The source of induced drag is a downwash flow velocity created on the wing by the. An alternative that might be used would be to shift or rotate the landing drag polar by a combination of drag and wing leading -edge devices. This will be true also for bullets that are scaled from one caliber to another. 77gr Smk G7 Bc. Dragapult is a dual-type Dragon/Ghost Pokémon that evolves from Drakloak at level 60. Fluid flow can be broken up into two general regimes by Mach number: those less than Mach 1 are said to be subsonic, while those greater than Mach 1 are said to be supersonic. Created at protrusion intersections. Summary of drag reduction concepts. The drag due to lift is also available from the theory. Induced drag: Also known as drag due to lift; the drag on the airplane due to vortices (whirling patterns of air) on the wingtips. 12 EXAMPLE: SUPERSONIC WAVE DRAG F-104 Starfighter. Supersonic Flow 377 3. Hydraulic type drag damper. Willys Supersonic Engine. A study illustrating the poten-tial of drag devices is presented in Fig. Several drag curve models optimized for several standard projectile shapes are however available. One point to take away form this curve is that, until the optimal velocity, it actually takes more thrust to maintain a lower speed, and it is not until you pass the optimal speed that you actually need more thrust to go faster. In the first type the force (drag), is created by the shearing action of the air due to its viscosity and the latter by differences in surface pressures which result in creation of both lift and drag forces. Learn more about Curve Finance and how they're leveraging Compound Finance to earn interest while aggregating stablecoin lending for minimum slippage. , 21, and 2s. Associated with passing the sound barrier it is a sudden and dramatic increase in drag which only comes into play as the vehicle increases speed through transonic and supersonic speeds. In consequence, the L/D of most supersonic aircraft tends to fall as Mach number increases. But it was the beautiful wing that distinguished the Concorde for its greatest fans. Supersonic aircraft must have considerably more power than subsonic aircraft require to overcome this wave drag, and although cruising performance above transonic speed is more efficient, it is still less efficient than flying subsonically. Numerical Calculation of the Transonic Flow Past a Swept Wing. Supersonic Zero-Lift Drag • For the supersonic flight regime, wave drag (drag due to the formation of shock wave) will be added on top of all other types of drag components. DIVERGENT MACH NUMBER. The Dyson Airwrap™ styler harnesses an aerodynamic phenomenon called the Coanda effect. 3 Assumptions in Breguet range analysis; Assess. Supersonic wind tunnel with Schlieren optics x Description • pressure curves and pressure losses at subsonic and superson-ic flow • interchangeable walls in the measuring section for velocities up to Mach 1,8 • schlieren optics for visualisation of Mach lines and shock waves on drag bodies Subsonic and supersonic flows behave differently. Drag'n'Drop is a great interface solution. These lift-drag ratios are, furthermore, especially susceptible to improvement by methods which reduce friction drag. Mason Supersonic Aerodynamics 10-3 7/31/16 The best paper to read on the B-58 is by Erickson. AeroDRAG & Flight Simulation interactively predicts subsonic, transonic and supersonic rocket drag to Mach 20 using the Newtonian surface inclination method for nose-body and fin combinations. But the Concorde has had some supersonic company. Creeper Force CreeperMILK. Thanks to the efforts of. At transonic and supersonic speeds there is a substantial increase in the total drag of the airplane due to fundamental changes in the pressure distribution. Into the great, wide open. To give you as much control as possible, it tries to provide a simple, flexible API that gives you all the pointer event. For slender bodies the supersonic $\epsilon$ is 0. The curve used is displayed on page 10 of NASA TR R-100. Voopoo Drag Series include Classic Vape Kits such like Drag 2,Drag S,Drag X,Drag Max Kit and Drag 2/Mini Paltinum Edition. edu) and Professor Masuyama (kmasuyama@csus.